As shown by recent NASA studies conducted with the help of the Jason-2 weather satellite, the trend towards strengthening El Niño will continue, promising us an even hotter year. The photographs show an unusually high ocean surface temperature along the equator in the central and eastern Pacific, indicating a significant layer of warm water.
El Niño originates when the steady western blowing trade winds in the Pacific are weakening and even begin to blow in the opposite direction. This leads to a sharp warming of the upper layers of water in the central and eastern part of the tropical Pacific region.
In 2015, thanks to El Niño, a warm layer of water formed, which usually looked like a thin strip running around Australia and Indonesia. Now in the eastern tropics of the Pacific, usually cool water covered a layer of warm water.
Such a redistribution of heat increased the temperature of the ocean from the central Pacific to North and South America. As a result, heavy rainfall hit South-East Asia, while in Indonesia, because of the drought, large-scale forest fires began.
El Niño caused abnormal heat in India, coral reef bleaching, drought in South Africa, floods in South America and a series of hurricanes in the eastern Pacific tropics.